1. Introduction - 35
Rhea A. White
Keith M. T. Hearne
5. Letters to the Editor: Response to Gillespie; Response to Gackenbach; and Response to Worsley - 39
6. Announcements Vol. 2, No. 1 - 40
7. Lucid Dreams: A Bibliography - 41
This is the fifth issue of a quarterly newsletter which is provided free of cost and is designed to serve as a professional forum for discussion on dream lucidity. Past issues are available upon request. As editor, I reserve the right to change or omit parts of submitted material in order to clarify. Extensive copy changes will be cleared with the contributing author.
--Jayne Gackenbach, Editor, Lucidty Letter
Rhea A. White
Parapsychology Sources of
By way of introduction, I am Director of the Parapsychology Sources of Information Center. One of our activities is to collect and index articles or chapters on or relevant to parapsychology and altered states. (The data base now numbers some 34,000 items.) In reading an article from the last century preparatory to assigning index terms for it, I found I had in my hands an interesting account of self—training in lucid dreaming dated 1886. Because of its possible historic interest, I would like to bring it to the attention of readers of Lucidity Letter. The article was primarily about suspended animation and was written by one Francis Gerry Fairfield and published in Scribner’s Monthly, 1886, 21, 240—257. In a discussion of conscious control of so—called unconscious processes, Fairfield notes:
“It is possible…to carry an imperfect consciousness into the processes of sleep. I once tried a series of experiments on this point, by vigilantly and determinedly persisting in consciousness until the last moment, while in other respects submitting myself passively to all the conditions necessary to the process. The consequence was, after a lengthened struggle with normal function, that my nights were transformed into a series of rational and coherent trances, wrapped about in a thin vapor of dreamland, and though connected and logical, yet strangely transcendent and introspective. Nor did this prevent my dreaming. On the contrary, dreams came and went, and I was conscious of them as beautiful or haggard illusions, and tried to prolong the former, and to elude the latter. But by far the most singular of all the psychological experiences associated with these experiments was the consciousness of being asleep and of being conscious of it. I discontinued the habit, as a perversion of function, after verifying the possibility; but for many months my dreams were accompanied with a perfect consciousness that they were dreams, and, to whatever pinnacle of ghastliness they mounted, I had the consolation of knowing that they were illusory experiences (p.256).”
Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 35.
Keith M.T. Hearne
Hearne Research Organization
Reported here is another apparent constructional characteristic of the visual—imagery process. It is becoming established that dream imagery has to operate within certain limitations.1’2 The new effect shows that, at least in some cases, pictures immediately before and after a drastic scene—change in waking imagery are pictorially similar in shapes and colours, yet totally different in setting. The effect was originally discovered by the author in ‘hypnotic’ dreams,3 but it later transpired that these subjects simply had very good imagery and that the effects could be produced without the notion of ‘hypnosis.’4 Since it seems likely that the same imaging apparatus is employed in waking imagery and dreams, the effect may also be universally observable in lucid dreams. A study is to be made in this area, but colleagues are requested to seek similar information from lucid dream subjects while they are still naive. Using the unique ability within the lucid dream to manipulate the course of events, and carefully observe what transpires, many such valuable insights into the dream process are bound to be revealed.
The method originally employed was as follows. In subdued light, the exceptional imager was instructed to begin a ‘dream’ and freeze the image on demand. That image was then ‘projected’ onto a drawing board, and the subject traced the picture’s outlines and described colours, textures, etc., for later completion by an artist. When the picture was finished, the dream was allowed to proceed, and the next picture obtained few seconds later. Eventually, a cartoonlike progression of images from the dream resulted. Pictures immediately before and after a scene—change could be specified.
Examples, from two female subjects, are displayed below.
Picture 1 shows the subject teaching a class of children -two of them are actually visible
Picture 2 is a birds—eye view of the subject’s sitting—room at home. Three people are present.
There are similarities in: the number of persons present; the number of items of furniture; the general size of the items of furniture; the general arrangement of
the picture; the colours of the two pictures.
Picture 3 shows a snake wrapped around a tree trunk. In its mouth is a carrot.
Picture 4 represents an incident that really happened to the subject. She fell down a manhole (top right picture) and found herself in a bricked corner, with a pipe nearby. She crawled through a gap by the corner and climbed a ladder to a door.
Similarities are: the green snake and the green pipe; a central brownish/red shape.
It is obvious in these cases that although the setting changes considerably, there
are certain definite links between the scenes. The effect is rather like a re—arrangement of pictorial elements. An analogy may be drawn perhaps between this phenomenon and changing key in music, where ‘pivot’ chords and notes, common to both keys, are included to smooth the transition. The ‘pivot shapes’ and ‘pivot colours’ in scene—changes may serve some similar process of visual ‘harmony.’ Certainly, the scene transforms by pictorial association.
It should also be noted that other characteristics found were: the frequent appearance of faceless persons, or persons having partial features; a tunnel vision effect (the images being restricted in area), with the area possibly varying positively in relation to the significance (to the subject) of the scene.
1. Hearne, K.M.T. (1981) A ‘light—switch’ phenomenon in lucid dreams. Journal
of Mental Imagery, 5(2):97—lO0.
2. Hearne, K.M.T. (1982) Effects of performing certain set tasks in the lucid
dream state. Percept.Mot.Skills., 54:259—262.
3. Hearne, K.M.T. (1973) Some investigations into hypnotic dreams using a new
technique. Unpublished B.Sc project. University of Reading, England.
4. Hearne, K.M.T. (1982) A cool look at nothing special. Nursing Mirror,
154(3): 26—28. (January 20)
Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 36.
For about three years now, I have been interested by out—of—body experiences, because these experiences happen to me once in a while (appx. 1/month). Feeling very frustrated not to be able to trigger this phenomena, I read all the available literature in French and English on the subject, looking for some sort of techniques. One of these books was Oliver Fox’s “Astral Projection,” in which the author explained how he made use of lucid dreams to produce out—of—body experiences. Knowing a little about lucid dreams, I decided to try this technique. But the problem now was to induce lucid dreams. I tried various techniques mentioned in a couple of books I had, but I wasn’t too satisfied with them.
Then, trying to find a better one, I came to think that to be conscious during a dream, I first had to be conscious during the day. Now, that sounds silly! We’re all conscious during the day, aren’t we? No! Most of us are not. Most of the day, we’re always involved in something, doing this or that, then still something else; we’re just as busy as in our dreams. Never do we stop to think:
“I am here, now. I’m perfectly conscious that I exist. I hear this noise (whatever it is) now. I see this thing, or these things now. I smell whatever now. I know who I am, where I am, what I’m doing and why, where I live, and all my memory is
available to me now.’.
We tend to live a great deal in the future and/or in the past. We use our actual perceptions to remind us of what we’ve done, of what we intend to do. Either we do things without being really conscious of doing them, either we’re so focused on our own thoughts that we are no more aware of most of what is around us. I’m afraid this is not very clear but the whole idea came intuitively and synthetically to me, and I find it very hard to put into words. (Still more in English words...)
Anyway, what I did then was to write a big “C” (for conscious) on my left hand to remind me as many times as possible to be conscious during the day. I’d see it every time I’d look at my watch, and many other times too, After one week of this training, I had my first lucid dream, and ever since I never went under an average of one lucid dream per week! After three weeks, I didn’t need the “C” on my hand anymore,
I was spontaneously conscious during most of the day.
Then I added some refinements to the technique: I’d consider the whole world as my own creation, and to help this, I used George Leonard’s idea of using one’s senses, not as a means to establish the limit between you and the outside world, but as means to be in constant contact with this world. I tried (and managed to) to feel the outside world inside me. Still another addition was to remind myself of being conscious every time any emotions, good or bad would manifest itself. In case of bad ones, it had the advantage of making them disappear. This particular addition is especially good for beginners. It raised my number of lucid dreams to three per
This whole technique, mainly to be conscious during the day, brought me lucidity; but other results just as important came to, I’m not mentioning them now, because they might influence other people’s results. But I’d be very glad if some people were to try this simple technique and report their results. The “secondary” results tend to be noticed much later (1 or 2 months) because they’re unexpected. Having
shared this technique with friends who tried it, I can guarantee quick
results. This technique has, at least for me, another advantage, that of being
natural. I have much respect and admiration for Dr. Hearne’s work In the field,
but I’d use his machine for the same purpose tantric buddhists used mescaline: to
have a good glimpse at what one’s heading for!
Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 38.
Response to Gillespie
I have some comments in response to George Gillespie, University of Pennsylvania (Lucidity Letter, Vol. 1, No. 4). I have always assumed that all of the terms used in discussion of lucidity are relative——i.e., they vary through a wide range of degree. ‘Lucidity’ I take to mean ANY degree of awareness of fact of your dreaming. ‘Waking consciousness’ is a further clarification of lucidity and can occur in a dream from the simplest knowledge that you ARE dreaming, right up to the rational carrying out of experiments. The fact that it may be a limited degree of awareness doesn’t nullify it as waking consciousness.’ ‘Out—of—the—body’; I think George is taking too limited a view of what this means. To me, there is no contradiction between being aware of the physical body in its sleeping location and having your consciousness busy elsewhere. This is merely an expansion of consciousness so that you are aware of being in two places at once--bi-location. It isn’t necessary to experience a separation process or a traveling process to get out of the body. Consciousness can be instantaneously wherever it desires to be--even on the moon or some other planet. As long as you’re not tied into the physical body in the
customary waking condition, you’re ‘out—of—the—body’ to some degree.
What is reality after all? — A mental creation; even waking, physical reality is a creation of the mind. So why quibble about whether you are in or out of the body
when you’re dreaming? I think most dreams can be thought of as OBEs. Even in so-called ‘ordinary dreams’ it is possible to think as rationally as in the full, waking state. Many of my dream group members and I myself have frequently experienced the process of rationally analyzing dreams while they are proceeding—apparently an awareness, although not specifically stated, that one is in fact dreaming. When you think of your waking consciousness, by and large, how often do you in fact function ‘absent—mindedly’?--strictly speaking, you are truly ‘out—of—the—body’ quite frequently even in the waking state!
I find it limiting to try to set hard and fine definitions for various dreaming states. There is a point where measuring and observing physiological phenomena connected with dreaming becomes hampering rather than helping. It seems clear to me that hard and fast proofs will never satisfy the determined skeptic. Only direct
personal experience will convince in the long run.
——Peggy Specht, Toronto, Canada
Response to Gackenbach
I have an experience that may be of interest in relation to Gackenbach’s research “Balance and Lucid Dreaming Ability: A Suggested Relationship” (Lucidity Letter, Vol. 1, No. 2). A few years ago while I was doing graduate work in philosophy (I have a B.A. in both philosophy and psychology) at Ohio University, I became very interested in increasing the level of my continuous waking awareness. I was trying to be able to be very aware of all that was going on around me, as well as trying to develop narrowly concentrated “one— pointedness.” I found Castenada’ paradigm of being a “hunter” most encouraging and to this end I practiced variations of his “right way of waking” in order to quiet my mind so that I could be more outwardly perceptive. As I traveled to class each day, I walked several hundred yards along a railroad track. Just for fun I often tried to walk along the top of one of the rails and it soon became apparent to me that to successfully walk a distance along the rail required that I quiet my internal thoughts and increase my bodily and external awareness. I began to practice walking on the rail for that reason. Any activity which demands continuous concentration can develop mental quietness and perceptual awareness, but I think balancing on the rail was especially useful for
several reasons. It is at once physically difficult enough to require perceptual/kinesthetic concentration and also mentally simple enough (as there is not much to understand) to allow mental quieting. Also, I got immediate feed—back as to how I was doing because almost every time my thoughts shifted (however unconsciously) I fell off and was reminded of where I was. Sitting meditation lacks this advantage.
Now then, in those dreams where I was able to maintain lucidity for more than a fraction of a minute before drifting back to regular dreaming, I found that the mental quietness/ perceptual awareness ability I had been trying to cultivate by balancing on the rail was most useful in maintaining lucidity while witnessing the dream unfold. What I am saying is, the ability to balance may be related to the ability to dream lucidly in some people because there is an underlying ability common to both skills; the ability to be mentally quiet and yet perceptually aware. I am, however, not in a position to make any comments regarding any physiological correlation between those skills.
-W. Mark Peth, Allison Park, PA
Response to Worsley
Keith Hearne has advised me that he is in disagreement with Alan Worsley’s account of Worsley’s contribution to Hearne’s dissertation research and I am currently looking into
the matter. —— Jayne Gackenbach, Editor
Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 39
1. Thanks to Dr. Edith Gilmore for translating two German articles dealing with dream lucidity:
Schieing, K. Dreams of flying and excursions of the ego. Archiv fur die Cesamte Psychologie, 1938, 100, 541—554;
von Moers—Messmer, H. Dreaming while knowing about the dream state. Archiv fur die Gesamte Psychologiae, 1938, 102, 291—318.
They are now completed and copies are available for the cost of postage and handling and a small translators fee. Send $3.00 to Dr. Jayne Gackenbach, Department of Psychology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614.
2. I have just finished translating Patricia Garfield’s book Creative Dreaming into
French; it should be available in mid November, 1982 (Les Editions de la Table
Ronde). -Roger Ripert
Centre ONIROS, France
3. The English translation of Dreams and How to Guide Them by Hervey de St. Denys
and edited by Morton Schatzman is avai1able for $20.00, which includes air—mail
postage, from Duckworth Publishers, The Piano Factory, 43 Gloucester, London,
The title of Dr. Hearne’s item in the last issue contained an error. It should read
“A suggested experimental method of producing false—awakenings with possible resulting lucidity or 0.B.E. — the ‘FAST’ (False Awakening with State Testing) technique.”
1. I would be interested in receiving detailed accounts of specific déjà vu
experiences, especially those in which sense of familiarity can be traced back
to a dream——if a lucid dream all the better! Please send accounts of any type
of deja vu experience to Rhea A. White Parapsychology Sources of Information
Center, 2 Plane Tree Lane, Dix Hills, 11746.
2. Anyone who can speak Czechoslovakian and would be willing to translate a 1960
article on dream lucidity for a nominal fee:
Hauliuek, Z. Contribution to the dynamics of “lucid” dreams. Ceskoslovenska
Psychiatrie, Vol. 62, 1966, pp. 309—318.
Please contact: Dr. Jayne Gackenbach
Department of Psychology, University of
Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614
3. As research in dream lucidity reaches scientific outlets, a review and/or summary
section of recent work in the area will begin in the next Lucidity Letter. If
you are interested in reviewing any of the articles or books which have come
out on dream lucidity please contact the editor of Lucidity Letter.
4. Several journals have expressed an interest in publishing research into dream lucidity either through past publication history or the solicitation of manuscripts. They include:
Journal of Mental Imagery, Dr. Akhter Ahsen, Editor;
Perceptual and Motor Skills, Dr. Carol Ammons, Editor;
Imagination, Cognition and Personality, Dr. Kenneth S. Pope and Dr. Jerome
Singer, Editors; and
Dreamworks, Kenneth John Atchity and Marshal Kinder, Editors.
Additionally, Dr. Keith Hearne of the Hearne research Organization in Hull,
England writes he is establishing “a new scientific journal for professional
workers, devoted to the study of lucid dreams and related phenomena (OBEs,
false—awakenings, etc.). The publication is to be titled the Journal of Lucid
Research. It will appear bi—annually (at first) starting from Spring 1983. Annual
subscription is $20.00. Authors are invited to submit manuscripts shortly, for
early publication in the first issue. A clear b&w photograph of the contributor
should be enclosed with a brief curriculum vitae. Dr. Keith Hearne, P.O. Box 84,
Hull, England HIJl 2EL.”
Finally, Jeremy Taylor and John Van Damm are planning to edit a special edition of the Dream Network Bulletin. They write that they:
“would like to take this opportunity to invite you to contribute a brief piece of writing (2 to 5 pages typewritten, double—spaced) together with a photo or drawing of yourself.
Although we do not wish to put any constraints on submissions, we would like the issue as a whole to reflect the theme ‘The State of the Art’...of dream work. We are most interested in your evolving experiences and ideas about working with dreams, your own and other peoples’. We are also interested in graphics and dream—inspired art, particularly those which will reproduce well in the planned, high—contrast 5 1/2by 7 format.
If you know of anyone who might like to submit such an article, please pass this invitation along. All material must be in our hands by February 15.”
Send materials to either editor at Dream
Tree Press, 10 Pleasant Lane, San Rafael, CA
Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 40.
University of Northern Iowa
In the burgeoning area of lucid dreaming work numerous professional and popular
articles on the phenomenon have appeared since Celia Green’s classic book, Lucid
Dreams, in 1968.
This list of references on dream lucidity covers only the work since the late
1960’s. Selected classic articles and books are listed, however, in the
Miscellaneous References section. If you know of any post 1960’s references which
you feel should be included in this bibliography, please bring them to my attention.
de Saint-Denys, Hervey. Les Reves et Les Noyens de Leg Diriger (Dreams and the
means of di— them) An English translation edited by Morton Schatzman, London:
Garfield, P. Creative dreaming. NY: Ballentine, 1974.
Garfeild, P. Pathway to ecstasy. NY: Halt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979.
Green, Celia. Lucid dreams. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1968.
LaBerge, S.P. Awake in your dreams: The new world of lucid dreaming. NY:
Simon and Schuster, 1983 (in press).
Sparrow, G.S. Locid dreaming: Dawning of the clear light. Virginia Beach,
VA: A.R.E. Press, 1976.
Gackenbach, J.I. Lucid dreaming project. A.R.E. Journal, 1980, 15 (6), 253—260.
Gackenbach, J.I. Personality differences between individuals varying in lucid
dreaming frequency. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry
and Medicine, 198 in press.
Gackenbach, J.I., Heilman, N. & Boyt, S. The relationship between field
independence and lucid dreaming ability. Journal of Mental Imagery, 1983, in
Gackenbach, J.I., & Schillig, B. Lucid dreams: The content of conscious awareness
of dreaming during the dream. Journal of Mental Imagery, 1983, in press.
Griffin, M.L. & Foulkes, D. Deliberate presleep control of dream content: An
experimental study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1977, 45, 660—662.
Raulicek, Z. Contribution to the dynamics of ‘lucid’ dreams. Ceskoslovenska
Psychiatrie 1966, 62, 309—318.
Hearne, K.M.T. Lucid dreams and ‘ESP’ : An initial experiment using one subject.
Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 1981, 51 (787), 7—11.
Hearne, K.M.T. A ‘light—switch’ phenomenon in lucid dreams. Journal of Mental
Imagery, 1981 5, 97—100.
Hearne, K.M.T. Effects of performing certain set tasks in the lucid dream state.
Perceptual Motor Skills, 1982, 54, 259—262.
Hearne, IC.M.T. An automated technique for studying ‘psi’ in home lucid dreams.
Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 1982, 54, in press.
Hearne, 1C.M.T. Lucid dream induction. Journal of Mental Imagery, 1982, in press.
Hunt, Harry T. Forms of dreaming. Perceptual and Motor Skills Monograph Supplement,
Jonte, Diane. Ego functions in a variety of dream states. Journal of Altered States
of Consciousness, 1978—79, 4(4), 305—319.
Kohr, R.L. A survey of psi experiences among members of a special population. The
Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1980, 74, 295—411.
LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming as a learnable skill: A case study. Perceptual
and Motor Skills 1980, 51, 1039—1042.
LaBerge, S.P. The paradox of lucid dreaming. In A. Ahsen, A.T. Dolan, & C.S. Jordan
(eds.), Handbook of imagery research and practice. NY: Brandon House, 1983,
LaBerge, S.P. Self—integration through lucid dreaming. In A. Ahsen, A.T. Dolan,
& C.S. Jordan (eds.), Handbook of imagery research and practice. NY: Brandon
House, 1983, in press.
LaBerge, S.P., Nagel, L.E., Dement, W.C., & Zarcon, V.P. Lucid dreaming verified
by volitional communication during REM sleep. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
1981, 52, 727—732.
Laberge, S.P. & Dement, W.C. Lateralization of alpha activity for dreamed singing
and counting during REM sleep. Psychophysiology, 1982, 19, 331—332.
Ogi1vie, R., Runt, H., Tyson, P.D., Lucescu, M.L. & Jeakins, D.B. Lucid dreaming
and alpha activity: A preliminary report. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1982,
Palmer, J. A community mail survey of psychic experiences, Research in
Parapsychology, 1974, 3, 130—133.
Rechtschaffen, A. The single—mindedness and isolation of dreams. Sleep, 1978,
Reed, Henry. Meditation and lucid dreaming: A statistical relationship. Sundance
Community Dream Journal, 1977, 2, 237—238.
Schwartz, B.A. & Lefebvre, A. Contacts veille/P.M.0.II. Les P.M.0. morecelles.
Revue d’Electroencephalographic et de Neurophysiologie Clinique, 1973, 3,
Shapiro, S.A. A classification scheme for out—of—body phenomena. Journal of Altered
States of Consciousness, 1975—76, 2, 259—263. -
Tart C. From spontaneous event to lucidity: A review of attempts to consciously
control nocturnal dreaming. In B.B. Wolman (ed.), Handbook of dreams. NY:
Van Nostrand — Reinhold, 1979.
III. PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS
Belicki, D.A., Hunt, H., & Belicki, K. An exploratory study comparing
lucid and non—lucid dreamers. Sleep Research, 1978, 7, 166.
Foulkes, D. & Griffin, M.L. An experimental study of “Creative Dreaming.” Sleep
Research, 1976, 5, 129.
Gackenbach, J.I. Lucid dreaming: Individual differences in personal
characteristics. Sleep Research, 1981, 10, 145.
Gackenbach, J.I., Sachau, D., & Rokes, L. Vestibular sensitivity and dynamic and
static motor balance as a function of sex and lucid dreaming frequency. Sleep
Research, 1982, in press.
Gackenbach, J.I., Snyder, T.J., McKelvey, K., McWilliams, C., George, E., &
Rodenelli, B. Lucid dreaming: Individual differences in perception. Sleep
Research, 1981, 10, 146.
Garfield, P. Self—conditioning of dream content. Sleep Research, 1974, 3, 118.
Garfield, P. Psychological concomitants of the lucid dream state. Sleep Research,
1976, 4, 183.
Garfield, P.L. Dream content——Does it reflect changes in self—concept? Sleep
Research, 1976, 5, 136.
Hoffman, E. & McCarley, R.W. Bizarreness and lucidity in REM sleep dreams: A
quantitative analysis. Sleep Research, 1980, 9, 134.
LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming: Some personal observations. Sleep Research, 1979,
LaBerge, S.P. Induction of lucid dreams. Sleep Research, 1980, 9, 138.
LaBerge, S.P., Nagel, L.E., Dement, W.C., & Zarcone, V.P. Evidence for lucid
dreaming during REM sleep. Sleep Research, 1981, 10, 148.
LaBerge, S.P., Nagel, L.E., Taylor, W.B., Dement, W.C., & Zarcone, V.
Psychophysiological correlates of the initiation of lucid dreaming. Sleep
Research, 1981, 10, 149.
LaBerge, S.P., Owens, J., Nagel, L.E., & Dement, W.C. ‘This is a dream’: Induction
of lucid dreams by verbal suggestion during REM sleep. Sleep Research, 1981,
LaBerge, S.P. & Dement, W.C. Voluntary control of respiration during REM sleep.
Sleep Research, 1982, in press.
LaBerge, S.P. The paradox of lucid dreaming. Sleep Research, 1982, in press.
Ogilvie, R., Hunt, H., Sawicki, D., & McGowan, K. Searching for lucid dreams.
Sleep Research 1978, 7, 165.
Ogilvie, R.D., Hunt, H.T., Tyson, P.O., Lucescu, B. & Jeakins, D.8. Alpha activity
and lucid dreams. Sleep Research, 1982, in press.
Snyder, T.J. & Gackenbach, J.I. Lucid dreaming and cerebral organization. Sleep
Research 1981, 10, 154.
University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.)
Brown, S. Electrophysiology of lucidity study. Dissertation in progress.
Carleton University (Dept. of Psychology, Ontario, Canada).
Dane, Joe. An empirical evaluation of two techniques for lucid dream induction.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, 1983.
Embree, H. Personality correlates of lucidity study. Dissertation in progress.
University of Arizona (Dept. of Psychology).
Gackenbach, J.I. A personality and cognitive style analysis of lucid dreaming.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1978.
Hearne, K.M.T. Lucid dreams: An electrophysiological and psychological study.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Liverpool, 1978 (available
from Dr. Hearne, P.O. Box 84, Hull, England HUI 2EL).
LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming: An exploratory study of consciousness during sleep.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, 1980.
Malamud, J.R. The development of a training method for the cultivation of ‘lucid’
awareness fantasy, dreams, and waking life. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, New York University 1980.
Sparrow S. Lucid dreams induction study. Dissertation in progress. Old Dominion
University folk, VA).
V. Papers (This includes papers read at conferences which are not listed under Published Proceedings.)
Dane, J. An empirical evaluation of three techniques for lucid dream induction.
Paper presented for a symposium on lucid dreaming at the annual meeting of
the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., August, 1982.
Gackenbach, J.I. The relationship of personality variables to lucid dreaming.
Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological
Association Hartford, Connecticut, April, 1980.
Gackenbach, J.I. Dream lucidity: A consideration of individual differences and
dream content. Paper presented for a symposium on lucid dreaming at the annual
meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. August,
Gackenbach, J.I. & Schillig, B. Lucid dreams: The content of waking consciousness
occurring during the dream. Paper presented at Dream Day 2 during the annual
meeting of the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep, San
Antonio, June, 1982.
Hearne, K.M.T. Eye—movement communication from lucid dreams: A new technique and
initial findings. Paper presented at the 11th Postgraduate—Postdoctoral
Conference in the Behavioural Sciences. Hull University, April, 1977.
Hearne, K.M.T. Lucid dreams: A new area for psi investigation. Paper presented at
the annual conference of the Society for Psychical Research, Brighton,
England, April, 1980.
LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming in the laboratory: A tool for mapping conscious states,
facilitating psychotherapy, and exploring human potential. Paper presented
at the Spring Hill Consciousness Research Assessment Conference.
Minneapolis, October, 1980.
LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming. Lecture presented to the International. Society for
General Semantics. San Francisco, January, 1981.
LaBerge, S.P. Healing through lucid dreaming. Lecture presented to the annual
symposium of the Holmes Center. Los Angeles, March, 1981.
LaBerge, S.P. Psychophysiology of lucid dreaming. Paper presented at the pre—APSS
Day of Dreams Symposium. Hyannis, June, 1981.
LaBerge, S.P. Psychophysiological parallelism in lucid dreams. Poster presented
at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association. Los
Angeles, August, 1981.
LaBerge, S.P. The psychophysiology of lucid dreaming. Paper presented for a
symposium on lucid dreaming at the annual meeting of the American
Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., August, 1982. -
Lenherr, Fred K. Consciousness and lucid dreams. Paper presented at the annual
meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, 1979.
Malamud, J. Training for “lucid” awareness in fantasy, dreams, and waking life.
Paper presented at a symposium on lucid dreaming at the annual meeting of
the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., August, 1982.
VI. MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS & NEWSLETTERS
Bilansky, S. Women and dreams. Hartford Woman, 1982 (August), 22—23.
Burne, J. The dream machine. Woman’s Journal, 1981, 164—169.
Colligan, B. Lucid dreams. OMNI, 1982, 4(6), 70—115.
Franklin, B. Sleepers signal clues to dream anatomy. Science News, 1981 (Sept. 19),
Gackenbach, J.I. (ed.) Lucidity Letter, Quarterly newsletter for researchers and
clinicians interested in dream lucidity (Department of Psychology,
University of Northern Iowa Cedar Falls, IA 50614).
Galvin, R.M. Control of dreams may be possible for a resolute few. Smithsonian,
1982, 13(5), 100—107.
Hearne, K.M.T. Insight into lucid dreams. Nursing Mirror, 1980, (March), 20—22.
Hearne, K.M.T. Control your own dreams. New Scientist, 1981, 91(1272), 783—785.
Hearne, K.M.T. Undiscovered country. Vogue, 1982 (March), 56—64.
Kenney, K. In your dream tell the monster to leave you be. Los Angeles Daily News,
1981 (February 2), 1.
LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming: Directing the action as it happens. Psychology Today,
1981, 15, 48—57.
LaBerge, S.P. Healing through lucid dreaming. Holmes Center Research Reporter, 1981, 5, (1)2—3.
Malamud, S.P. Lucidity in walking life. Dream Network Bulletin, 1981, 5(1), 2-3.
Shute, S. (ed.) Lucidity & Beyond, Quarterly newsletter for the general population
on lucid dreaming (Box 1406, San Francisco, CA 94101).
Strauss, S. Learning how to control dreams while dreaming is research goal. Toronto
Globe and Mail, 1982 (June, 18), 56.
Thompson K. Mapping out the lucid dream: An interview with Stephen LaBerge.
Eslan Catalogue 1982, 21(3), 6—7.
Unauthored. The Dream Machine. Discover, 1981 (March), 56.
Unauthored. Wunderbare Ruhe. Der Spiegel, 1981 (March 16), 35(12), 251—253, 256.
Unauthored. The dream director. Science News, 1981, 119, 26.
Worsley, A. Apparitions and lucid dreams. New Scientist, 1980 (October 8), 118.
VII. UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS (This includes manuscripts not referred to in any of the previous sections.)
Fellows, Peter. To awaken the dreaming self, 1982 (Centre for Inner Learning, 195
Exbury Road, #506, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3M 1R9).
Gillespie, G. Dreamer’s progress: A record of experiments made while dreaming,
1982 (216 W. Second Street, Moorestown, NJ 08057).
Hearne, K.M.T. Features of Lucid Dreams: Questionnaire data and Content Analyses,
1982 (Box 84, Hull, England HU1 2EL).
Hearne, K.M.T. Eye—movement comunication from lucid dreams: A new technique and
initial findings, 1982 (Box 84, Hull, England HU1 2EL).
Sparrow, S. Lucid dreaming and the out—of—body assumption, 1978 (A.R.E., Box 595,
Virginia Beach, VA).
Wills, Russell. Endless entrance, 1981. (A summary of the Senoi literature; 1601
Comox, Apt. 41, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, E6C 1P4.)
VIII. MISCELLANEOUS REFERENCES (These are a few selected references about lucidity which appeared before the late 1960’s.)
Arnold—Forster, M. Studies in dreams. New York: MacMillan, 1921.
Brown, A.E. Dreams in which the dreamer knows he is asleep, Journal of Abnormal
and Social Psychology, 1936, 31, 59—66.
Stewart, Kilton. Dream Theory in Malaya, Complex, 1951, 6, 21-33.
Van Eeden, F. A study of dreams. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research,
1913, 26 (pt 47): 431—461.
Ders—Messmer, H. Dreaming while knowing about the dream state. Archiv fur die
Gesamte Psychologie, 1938, 102, 291—318.