Lucidity Letter - January 1983 - Vol. 2, No. 1

Lucidity Letter

1.   Introduction - 35   

2.   An Historical Note on Lucid Dreaming - 35

       Rhea A. White

3.   A ‘Scene—Change Phenomenon’ in Externalized Imagery - 36

       Keith M. T. Hearne

4.   Natural Induction of Lucid Dreams - 38

       Olivier Clerc

5.   Letters to the Editor: Response to Gillespie; Response to Gackenbach; and Response to Worsley - 39

6.   Announcements Vol. 2, No. 1 - 40

7.   Lucid Dreams: A Bibliography - 41

       Jayne Gackenbach




This is the fifth issue of a quarterly newsletter which is provided free of cost and is designed to serve as a professional forum for discussion on dream lucidity. Past issues are available upon request. As editor, I reserve the right to change or omit parts of submitted material in order to clarify. Extensive copy changes will be cleared with the contributing author.

--Jayne Gackenbach, Editor, Lucidty Letter


An Historical Note on Lucid Dreaming


Rhea A. White

Parapsychology Sources of

Information Center

New York


By way of introduction, I am Director of the Parapsychology Sources of Information Center. One of our activities is to collect and index articles or chapters on or relevant to para­psychology and altered states. (The data base now numbers some 34,000 items.) In reading an article from the last century preparatory to assigning index terms for it, I found I had in my hands an interesting account of self—training in lucid dreaming dated 1886. Because of its possible historic interest, I would like to bring it to the attention of readers of Lucidity Letter. The article was primarily about suspended anima­tion and was written by one Francis Gerry Fairfield and published in Scribner’s Monthly, 1886, 21, 240—257. In a discussion of conscious control of so—called unconscious processes, Fairfield notes:



  “It is possible…to carry an imperfect consciousness into the processes of sleep. I once tried a series of experiments on this point, by vigilantly and determinedly persisting in consciousness until the last moment, while in other respects submitting myself passively to all the conditions necessary to the process. The consequence was, after a lengthened struggle with nor­mal function, that my nights were trans­formed into a series of rational and coher­ent trances, wrapped about in a thin vapor of dreamland, and though connected and logical, yet strangely transcendent and introspective. Nor did this prevent my dreaming. On the contrary, dreams came and went, and I was conscious of them as beau­tiful or haggard illusions, and tried to prolong the former, and to elude the lat­ter. But by far the most singular of all the psychological experiences associated with these experiments was the conscious­ness of being asleep and of being conscious of it. I discontinued the habit, as a per­version of function, after verifying the possibility; but for many months my dreams were accompanied with a perfect conscious­ness that they were dreams, and, to what­ever pinnacle of ghastliness they mounted, I had the consolation of knowing that they were illusory experiences (p.256).”


Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 35.


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A ‘Scene—Change Phenomenon’ in Externalized Imagery


Keith M.T. Hearne

Hearne Research Organization

Hull, England


  Reported here is another apparent construc­tional characteristic of the visual—imagery process. It is becoming established that dream imagery has to operate within certain limitations.1’2 The new effect shows that, at least in some cases, pictures immediately before and after a drastic scene—change in waking imagery are pictorially similar in shapes and colours, yet totally different in setting. The effect was originally dis­covered by the author in ‘hypnotic’ dreams,3 but it later transpired that these subjects simply had very good imagery and that the effects could be produced without the notion of ‘hypnosis.’4 Since it seems likely that the same imaging apparatus is employed in waking imagery and dreams, the effect may also be universally observable in lucid dreams. A study is to be made in this area, but colleagues are requested to seek similar information from lucid dream subjects while they are still naive. Using the unique ability within the lucid dream to manipulate the course of events, and carefully observe what transpires, many such valuable in­sights into the dream process are bound to be revealed.


  The method originally employed was as fol­lows. In subdued light, the exceptional imager was instructed to begin a ‘dream’ and freeze the image on demand. That image was then ‘projected’ onto a drawing board, and the subject traced the picture’s outlines and described colours, textures, etc., for later completion by an artist. When the picture was finished, the dream was allowed to proceed, and the next picture obtained few seconds later. Eventually, a cartoon­like progression of images from the dream resulted. Pictures immediately before and after a scene—change could be specified.


  Examples, from two female subjects, are dis­played below.








Subject: A


Picture 1 shows the subject teaching a class of children -two of them are actually visible

Picture 2 is a birds—eye view of the sub­ject’s sitting—room at home. Three people are present.


There are similarities in: the number of per­sons present; the number of items of furni­ture; the general size of the items of furni­ture; the general arrangement of

the picture; the colours of the two pictures.


Subject: B


Picture 3 shows a snake wrapped around a tree trunk. In its mouth is a carrot.


Picture 4 represents an incident that really happened to the subject. She fell down a manhole (top right picture) and found herself in a bricked corner, with a pipe nearby. She crawled through a gap by the corner and climbed a ladder to a door.


Similarities are: the green snake and the green pipe; a central brownish/red shape.



It is obvious in these cases that although the setting changes considerably, there

are certain definite links between the scenes. The effect is rather like a re—arrangement of pictorial elements. An analogy may be drawn perhaps between this phenomenon and changing key in music, where ‘pivot’ chords and notes, common to both keys, are included to smooth the transition. The ‘pivot shapes’ and ‘pivot colours’ in scene—changes may serve some similar process of visual ‘harmony.’ Certainly, the scene transforms by pictorial association.


It should also be noted that other character­istics found were: the frequent appearance of faceless persons, or persons having par­tial features; a tunnel vision effect (the images being restricted in area), with the area possibly varying positively in relation to the significance (to the subject) of the scene.





1.         Hearne, K.M.T. (1981) A ‘light—switch’ phenomenon in lucid dreams. Journal

      of Mental Imagery, 5(2):97—lO0.

2.         Hearne, K.M.T. (1982) Effects of perform­ing certain set tasks in the lucid

      dream state. Percept.Mot.Skills., 54:259—262.

3.         Hearne, K.M.T. (1973) Some investigations into hypnotic dreams using a new

      techni­que. Unpublished B.Sc project. Univer­sity of Reading, England.

4.         Hearne, K.M.T.           (1982) A cool look at nothing special. Nursing Mirror,

      154(3): 26—28. (January 20)



Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 36.


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Natural Induction of Lucid Dreams


Olivier Clerc

Geneva, Switzerland


For about three years now, I have been inter­ested by out—of—body experiences, because these experiences happen to me once in a while (appx. 1/month). Feeling very frus­trated not to be able to trigger this phe­nomena, I read all the available literature in French and English on the subject, looking for some sort of techniques. One of these books was Oliver Fox’s “Astral Projection,” in which the author explained how he made use of lucid dreams to produce out—of—body exper­iences. Knowing a little about lucid dreams, I decided to try this technique. But the problem now was to induce lucid dreams. I tried various techniques mentioned in a cou­ple of books I had, but I wasn’t too satis­fied with them.


Then, trying to find a better one, I came to think that to be conscious during a dream, I first  had to be  conscious  during  the day. Now, that sounds silly! We’re all conscious during the day, aren’t we? No! Most of us are not. Most of the day, we’re always in­volved in something, doing this or that, then still something else; we’re just as busy as in our dreams. Never do we stop to think:

“I am here, now. I’m perfectly conscious that I exist. I hear this noise (whatever it is) now. I see this thing, or these things now. I smell whatever now. I know who I am, where I am, what I’m doing and why, where I live, and all my memory is

available to me now.’.


We tend to live a great deal in the future and/or in the past. We use our actual perceptions to remind us of what we’ve done, of what we intend to do. Either we do things without being really conscious of doing them, either we’re so focused on our own thoughts that we are no more aware of most of what is around us. I’m afraid this is not very clear but the whole idea came intuitively and synthetically to me, and I find it very hard to put into words. (Still more in English words...)


Anyway, what I did then was to write a big “C” (for conscious) on my left hand to remind me as many times as possible to be conscious during the day. I’d see it every time I’d look at my watch, and many other times too, After one week of this training, I had my first lucid dream, and ever since I never went under an average of one lucid dream per week! After three weeks, I didn’t need the “C” on my hand anymore,

I was spontaneously conscious during most of the day.


Then I added some refinements to the technique: I’d consider the whole world as my own creation, and to help this, I used George Leonard’s idea of using one’s senses, not as a means to establish the limit between you and the outside world, but as means to be in constant contact with this world. I tried (and managed to) to feel the outside world inside me. Still another addition was to remind myself of being conscious every time any emotions, good or bad would manifest itself. In case of bad ones, it had the advantage of making them disappear. This particular addition is especially good for beginners. It raised my number of lucid dreams to three per

two weeks.


This whole technique, mainly to be conscious during the day, brought me lucidity; but other results just as important came to, I’m not mentioning them now, because they might influence other people’s results. But I’d be very glad if some people were to try this simple technique and report their results. The “secondary” results tend to be noticed much later (1 or 2 months) because they’re unexpected. Having

shared this technique with friends who tried it, I can guarantee quick

results. This technique has, at least for me, another advantage, that of being

natural. I have much respect and admiration for Dr. Hearne’s work In the field,

but I’d use his machine for the same purpose tantric buddhists used mescaline: to

have a good glimpse at what one’s heading for!


Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 38.


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Response to Gillespie


I have some comments in response to George Gillespie, University of Pennsylvania (Lucidity Letter, Vol. 1, No. 4). I have always assumed that all of the terms used in discussion of lucidity are relative——i.e., they vary through a wide range of degree. ‘Lucidity’ I take to mean ANY degree of awareness of fact of your dreaming. ‘Waking consciousness’ is a further clarification of lucidity and can occur in a dream from the simplest knowledge that you ARE dreaming, right up to the rational carrying out of experiments. The fact that it may be a limited degree of awareness doesn’t nullify it as waking consciousness.’ ‘Out—of—the—body’; I think George is taking too limited a view of what this means. To me, there is no contradiction between being aware of the physical body in its sleeping location and having your consciousness busy elsewhere. This is merely an expansion of consciousness so that you are aware of being in two places at once--bi-location. It isn’t necessary to experience a separation process or a traveling process to get out of the body. Consciousness can be instantaneously wherever it desires to be--even on the moon or some other planet. As long as you’re not tied into the physical body in the

customary waking condition, you’re ‘out—of—the—body’ to some degree.


What is reality after all? — A mental creation; even waking, physical reality is a creation of the mind. So why quibble about whether you are in or out of the body

when you’re dreaming? I think most dreams can be thought of as OBEs. Even in so-called ‘ordinary dreams’ it is possible to think as rationally as in the full, waking state. Many of my dream group members and I myself have frequently experienced the process of rationally analyzing dreams while they are proceeding—apparently an awareness, although not specifically stated, that one is in fact dreaming. When you think of your waking con­sciousness, by and large, how often do you in fact function ‘absent—mindedly’?--strictly speaking, you are truly ‘out—of—the—body’ quite frequently even in the waking state!


I find it limiting to try to set hard and fine definitions for various dreaming states. There is a point where measuring and observ­ing physiological phenomena connected with dreaming becomes hampering rather than help­ing. It seems clear to me that hard and fast proofs will never satisfy the determined skeptic. Only direct

personal experience will convince in the long run.

                                             ——Peggy Specht, Toronto, Canada



Response to Gackenbach


I have an experience that may be of interest in relation to Gackenbach’s research “Balance and Lucid Dreaming Ability: A Suggested Re­lationship” (Lucidity Letter, Vol. 1, No. 2). A few years ago while I was doing graduate work in philosophy (I have a B.A. in both philosophy and psychology) at Ohio Univer­sity, I became very interested in increasing the level of my continuous waking awareness. I was trying to be able to be very aware of all that was going on around me, as well as trying to develop narrowly concentrated “one— pointedness.” I found Castenada’ paradigm of being a “hunter” most encouraging and to this end I practiced variations of his “right way of waking” in order to quiet my mind so that I could be more outwardly perceptive. As I traveled to class each day, I walked several hundred yards along a railroad track. Just for fun I often tried to walk along the top of one of the rails and it soon became apparent to me that to successfully walk a distance along the rail required that I quiet my internal thoughts and increase my bodily and external awareness. I began to practice walking on the rail for that reason. Any activity which demands continuous concen­tration can develop mental quietness and per­ceptual awareness, but I think balancing on the rail was especially useful for

several reasons. It is at once physically difficult enough to require perceptual/kinesthetic con­centration and also mentally simple enough (as there is not much to understand) to allow mental quieting. Also, I got immediate feed—back as to how I was doing because al­most every time my thoughts shifted (however unconsciously) I fell off and was reminded of where I was. Sitting meditation lacks this advantage.


Now then, in those dreams where I was able to maintain lucidity for more than a fraction of a minute before drifting back to regular dreaming, I found that the mental quietness/ perceptual awareness ability I had been try­ing to cultivate by balancing on the rail was most useful in maintaining lucidity while witnessing the dream unfold. What I am say­ing is, the ability to balance may be related to the ability to dream lucidly in some people because there is an underlying ability common to both skills; the ability to be mentally quiet and yet perceptually aware. I am, however, not in a position to make any comments regarding any physiological correla­tion between those skills.

                                                     -W. Mark Peth, Allison Park, PA


Response to Worsley


Keith Hearne has advised me that he is in disagreement with Alan Worsley’s account of Worsley’s contribution to Hearne’s disserta­tion research and I am currently looking into

the matter.                             —— Jayne Gackenbach, Editor

                                                               Lucidity Letter


Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 39


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Publications Available:


1.         Thanks to Dr. Edith Gilmore for translat­ing two German articles dealing with dream lucidity:


Schieing, K. Dreams of flying and excur­sions of the ego. Archiv fur die Cesamte Psychologie, 1938, 100, 541—554;




von Moers—Messmer, H. Dreaming while know­ing about the dream state. Archiv fur die Gesamte Psychologiae, 1938, 102, 291—318.


They are now completed and copies are available for the cost of postage and handling and a small translators fee. Send $3.00 to Dr. Jayne Gackenbach, Department of Psychology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614.



2. I have just finished translating Patricia Garfield’s book Creative Dreaming into

   French; it should be available in mid November, 1982 (Les Editions de la Table

 Ronde).                                                            -Roger Ripert

                                                                       Centre ONIROS, France


3. The English translation of Dreams and  How to Guide Them by Hervey de St. Denys

   and edited by Morton Schatzman is avai1able for $20.00, which includes air—mail

   postage, from Duckworth Publishers, The Piano Factory, 43 Gloucester, London,

   NW1, England.




The title of Dr. Hearne’s item in the last issue contained an error. It should read

“A suggested experimental method of producing false—awakenings with possible resulting lucidity or 0.B.E. — the ‘FAST’ (False Awakening with State Testing) technique.”



Information Requested:


1. I would be interested in receiving detailed accounts of specific déjà vu

   experiences, especially those in which sense of familiarity can be traced back

   to a dream——if a lucid dream all the better! Please send accounts of any type

   of deja vu experience to Rhea A. White Parapsychology Sources of Information

   Center, 2 Plane Tree Lane, Dix Hills, 11746.


2. Anyone who can speak Czechoslovakian and would be willing to translate a 1960

   article on dream lucidity for a nominal fee:


  Hauliuek, Z. Contribution to the dynamics of “lucid” dreams. Ceskoslovenska

   Psychiatrie, Vol. 62, 1966, pp. 309—318.


   Please contact: Dr. Jayne Gackenbach

   Department of Psychology, University of

   Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614


3. As research in dream lucidity reaches scientific outlets, a review and/or summary

   section of recent work in the area will begin in the next Lucidity Letter. If

   you are interested in reviewing any of the articles or books which have come

   out on dream lucidity please contact the editor of Lucidity Letter.



4.  Several journals have expressed an interest in publishing research into dream lucidity either through past publication history or the solicitation of manuscripts. They include:


Journal  of Mental  Imagery, Dr. Akhter Ahsen, Editor;

Perceptual and Motor Skills, Dr. Carol Ammons, Editor;

Imagination, Cognition  and Personality, Dr. Kenneth S. Pope and Dr. Jerome

   Singer, Editors; and

Dreamworks, Kenneth John Atchity and Marshal Kinder, Editors.



Additionally, Dr. Keith Hearne of the Hearne research Organization in Hull,

England writes he is establishing “a new scientific journal for professional

workers, devoted to the study of lucid dreams and related phenomena (OBEs,

false—awakenings, etc.). The publication is to be titled the Journal of Lucid

Research. It will appear bi—annually (at first) starting from Spring 1983. Annual

subscription is $20.00. Authors are invited to submit manuscripts shortly, for

early publication in the first issue. A clear b&w photograph of the contributor

should be enclosed with a brief curriculum vitae. Dr. Keith Hearne, P.O. Box 84,

Hull, England HIJl 2EL.”


Finally, Jeremy Taylor and John Van Damm are planning to edit a special edition of the Dream Network Bulletin. They write that they:


“would like to take this opportunity to invite you to contribute a brief piece of writing (2 to 5 pages typewritten, double—spaced) together with a photo or drawing of yourself.


Although we do not wish to put any con­straints on submissions, we would like the issue as a whole to reflect the theme ‘The State of the Art’...of dream work. We are most interested in your evolving experi­ences and ideas about working with dreams, your own and other peoples’. We are also interested in graphics and dream—inspired art, particularly those which will repro­duce well in the planned, high—contrast 5 1/2by 7 format.

If you know of anyone who might like to submit such an article, please pass this invitation along. All material must be in our hands by February 15.”


Send materials to either editor at Dream

Tree Press, 10 Pleasant Lane, San Rafael, CA



Lucidity Letter Back Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1, January, 1983, page 40.


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Lucid Dreams:  A Bibliography


Complied by

Jayne Gackenbach

University of Northern Iowa


In the burgeoning area of lucid dreaming work numerous professional and popular

articles on the phenomenon have appeared since Celia Green’s classic book, Lucid

Dreams, in 1968.


This list of references on dream lucidity covers only the work since the late

1960’s. Selected classic articles and books are listed, however, in the

Miscellaneous References section. If you know of any post 1960’s references which

you feel should be included in this bibliography, please bring them to my attention.




de Saint-Denys, Hervey. Les Reves et Les Noyens de Leg Diriger   (Dreams and the

    means of di— them) An English translation edited by Morton Schatzman, London:

    Duckworth, 1982.


Garfield, P. Creative dreaming. NY: Ballentine, 1974.


Garfeild, P. Pathway to ecstasy. NY:    Halt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979.


Green, Celia. Lucid dreams. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1968.


LaBerge, S.P. Awake in your dreams: The new world of lucid dreaming. NY:

    Simon and Schuster, 1983 (in press).


Sparrow, G.S. Locid dreaming: Dawning of the clear light. Virginia Beach,

    VA:  A.R.E. Press, 1976.





Gackenbach, J.I. Lucid dreaming project. A.R.E. Journal, 1980, 15 (6), 253—260.


Gackenbach, J.I. Personality differences between individuals varying in lucid

    dreaming frequency. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry

    and Medicine, 198 in press.


Gackenbach, J.I., Heilman, N. & Boyt, S. The relationship between field

    independence and lucid dreaming ability. Journal of Mental Imagery, 1983, in



Gackenbach, J.I., & Schillig, B. Lucid dreams: The content of conscious awareness

    of dreaming during the dream. Journal of Mental Imagery, 1983, in press.


Griffin, M.L. & Foulkes, D. Deliberate presleep control of dream content: An

    experimental study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1977, 45, 660—662.


Raulicek, Z. Contribution to the dynamics of ‘lucid’ dreams. Ceskoslovenska

    Psychiatrie 1966, 62, 309—318.


Hearne, K.M.T. Lucid dreams and ‘ESP’ : An initial experiment using one subject.

    Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 1981, 51 (787), 7—11.


Hearne, K.M.T. A ‘light—switch’ phenomenon in lucid dreams. Journal of Mental

    Imagery, 1981 5, 97—100.


Hearne, K.M.T. Effects of performing certain set tasks in the lucid dream state.

    Perceptual Motor Skills, 1982, 54, 259—262.


Hearne, IC.M.T. An automated technique for studying ‘psi’ in home lucid dreams.

    Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 1982, 54, in press.


Hearne, 1C.M.T. Lucid dream induction. Journal of Mental Imagery, 1982, in press.


Hunt, Harry T. Forms of dreaming. Perceptual and Motor Skills Monograph Supplement,

    1982, 54(1).


Jonte, Diane. Ego functions in a variety of dream states. Journal of Altered States

    of Consciousness, 1978—79, 4(4), 305—319.


Kohr, R.L. A survey of psi experiences among members of a special population. The

    Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1980, 74, 295—411.


LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming as a learnable skill:         A case study. Perceptual

    and Motor Skills 1980, 51, 1039—1042.


LaBerge, S.P. The paradox of lucid dreaming. In A. Ahsen, A.T. Dolan, & C.S. Jordan

    (eds.), Handbook of imagery research and practice. NY: Brandon House, 1983,

    in press.


LaBerge, S.P. Self—integration through lucid dreaming. In A. Ahsen, A.T. Dolan,

     & C.S. Jordan (eds.), Handbook of imagery research and practice. NY: Brandon

     House, 1983, in press.


LaBerge, S.P., Nagel, L.E., Dement, W.C., & Zarcon, V.P. Lucid dreaming verified

     by volitional communication during REM sleep. Perceptual and Motor Skills,

     1981, 52, 727—732.


Laberge, S.P. & Dement, W.C. Lateralization of alpha activity for dreamed singing

     and counting during REM sleep. Psychophysiology, 1982, 19, 331—332.


Ogi1vie, R., Runt, H., Tyson, P.D., Lucescu, M.L. & Jeakins, D.B. Lucid dreaming

     and alpha activity: A preliminary report. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1982,

     55, 795—808.


Palmer, J. A community mail survey of psychic experiences, Research in

     Parapsychology, 1974, 3, 130—133.


Rechtschaffen,  A.  The single—mindedness and isolation of dreams.  Sleep, 1978,

     1, 97—109.


 Reed, Henry. Meditation and lucid dreaming: A statistical relationship. Sundance

 Community Dream Journal, 1977, 2, 237—238.


Schwartz, B.A. & Lefebvre, A. Contacts veille/P.M.0.II. Les P.M.0. morecelles.

     Revue d’Electroencephalographic et de Neurophysiologie Clinique, 1973, 3,



Shapiro, S.A. A classification scheme for out—of—body phenomena. Journal of Altered

     States of Consciousness, 1975—76, 2, 259—263.  -          


Tart C. From spontaneous event to lucidity: A review of attempts to consciously

     control nocturnal dreaming. In B.B. Wolman (ed.), Handbook of dreams. NY:

     Van Nostrand — Reinhold, 1979.





Belicki, D.A., Hunt, H., & Belicki, K. An exploratory study comparing


     lucid and non—lucid dreamers. Sleep Research, 1978, 7, 166.


Foulkes, D. & Griffin, M.L. An experimental study of “Creative Dreaming.” Sleep

     Research, 1976, 5, 129.


Gackenbach, J.I. Lucid dreaming: Individual differences in personal

     characteristics. Sleep Research, 1981, 10, 145.


Gackenbach, J.I., Sachau, D., & Rokes, L. Vestibular sensitivity and dynamic and

     static motor balance as a function of sex and lucid dreaming frequency. Sleep

     Research, 1982, in press.


Gackenbach, J.I., Snyder, T.J., McKelvey, K., McWilliams, C., George, E., &

     Rodenelli, B. Lucid dreaming: Individual differences in perception. Sleep

     Research, 1981, 10, 146.


Garfield, P. Self—conditioning of dream content. Sleep Research, 1974, 3, 118.


Garfield, P. Psychological concomitants of the lucid dream state. Sleep Research,

     1976, 4, 183.


Garfield, P.L. Dream content——Does it reflect changes in self—concept? Sleep

     Research, 1976, 5, 136.


Hoffman, E. & McCarley, R.W. Bizarreness and lucidity in REM sleep dreams: A

     quantitative analysis. Sleep Research, 1980, 9, 134.


LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming: Some personal observations. Sleep Research, 1979,

     8, 158.


LaBerge, S.P. Induction of lucid dreams. Sleep Research, 1980, 9, 138.


LaBerge, S.P., Nagel, L.E., Dement, W.C., & Zarcone, V.P. Evidence for lucid

     dreaming during REM sleep. Sleep Research, 1981, 10, 148.


LaBerge, S.P., Nagel, L.E., Taylor, W.B., Dement, W.C., & Zarcone, V.

     Psychophysiological correlates of the initiation of lucid dreaming. Sleep

     Research, 1981, 10, 149.


LaBerge, S.P., Owens, J., Nagel, L.E., & Dement, W.C. ‘This is a dream’: Induction

     of lucid dreams by verbal suggestion during REM sleep. Sleep Research, 1981,

     10, 150.


LaBerge, S.P. & Dement, W.C. Voluntary control of respiration during REM sleep.

     Sleep Research, 1982, in press.


LaBerge, S.P. The paradox of lucid dreaming. Sleep Research, 1982, in press.


Ogilvie, R., Hunt, H., Sawicki, D., & McGowan, K. Searching for lucid dreams.

     Sleep Research 1978, 7, 165.


Ogilvie, R.D., Hunt, H.T., Tyson, P.O., Lucescu, B. & Jeakins, D.8. Alpha activity

     and lucid dreams. Sleep Research, 1982, in press.


Snyder, T.J. & Gackenbach, J.I. Lucid dreaming and cerebral organization. Sleep

     Research 1981, 10, 154.


  1. IV.              DISSERTATIONS (Those completed in the United States are available from

 University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.)


Brown, S. Electrophysiology of lucidity study. Dissertation in progress.

     Carleton University (Dept. of Psychology, Ontario, Canada).


Dane, Joe. An empirical evaluation of two techniques for lucid dream induction.

     Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, 1983.


Embree, H. Personality correlates of lucidity study. Dissertation in progress.

     University of Arizona (Dept. of Psychology).


Gackenbach, J.I. A personality  and cognitive style analysis of lucid dreaming.

     Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1978.


Hearne, K.M.T. Lucid dreams:  An electrophysiological and psychological study.

     Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Liverpool, 1978 (available

     from Dr. Hearne, P.O. Box 84, Hull, England HUI 2EL).


LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming: An exploratory study of  consciousness during sleep.

     Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, 1980.


Malamud, J.R. The development of a training method for the cultivation of ‘lucid’

     awareness fantasy, dreams, and waking life. Unpublished doctoral

     dissertation, New York University 1980.


Sparrow S.       Lucid dreams induction study. Dissertation in progress. Old Dominion

     University folk, VA).


V. Papers (This includes papers read at conferences which are not listed under Published Proceedings.)


Dane, J. An empirical evaluation of three techniques for lucid dream induction.

      Paper presented for a symposium on lucid dreaming at the annual meeting of

      the American Psycho­logical Association, Washington, D.C., August, 1982.


Gackenbach, J.I. The relationship of personality variables to lucid dreaming.

      Poster pre­sented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological

      Association Hartford, Connecti­cut, April, 1980.


Gackenbach, J.I. Dream lucidity: A consideration of individual differences and

      dream content. Paper presented for a symposium on lucid dreaming at the annual

      meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. August,



Gackenbach, J.I. & Schillig, B. Lucid dreams: The content of waking consciousness

      occurring during the dream. Paper presented at Dream Day 2 during the annual

      meeting of the Associ­ation for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep, San

      Antonio, June, 1982.


Hearne, K.M.T. Eye—movement communication from lucid dreams: A new technique and

      initial findings. Paper presented at the 11th Postgraduate—Postdoctoral

      Conference in the Behav­ioural Sciences. Hull University, April, 1977.


Hearne, K.M.T. Lucid dreams: A new area for psi investigation. Paper presented at

      the annual conference of the Society for Psychical Research, Brighton,

      England, April, 1980.


LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming in the laboratory: A tool for mapping conscious states,

      facili­tating psychotherapy, and exploring human potential. Paper presented

      at the Spring Hill Consciousness Research Assessment Conference.

      Minneapolis, October, 1980.


LaBerge, S.P. Lucid dreaming. Lecture presented to the International. Society for

      General Semantics. San Francisco, January, 1981.


LaBerge, S.P. Healing through lucid dreaming. Lecture presented to the annual

      symposium of the Holmes Center. Los Angeles, March, 1981.


LaBerge, S.P. Psychophysiology of lucid dreaming. Paper presented at the pre—APSS

      Day of Dreams Symposium. Hyannis, June, 1981.


LaBerge, S.P. Psychophysiological parallelism in lucid dreams. Poster presented

      at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association. Los

      Angeles, August, 1981.


LaBerge, S.P. The psychophysiology of lucid dreaming. Paper presented for a

      symposium on lucid dreaming at the annual meeting of the American

      Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., August, 1982. -


Lenherr, Fred K. Consciousness and lucid dreams. Paper presented at the annual

      meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, 1979.


Malamud, J. Training for “lucid” awareness in fantasy, dreams, and waking life.

      Paper presented at a symposium on lucid dreaming at the annual meeting of

      the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., August, 1982.




Bilansky, S. Women and dreams. Hartford Woman, 1982 (August), 22—23.


Burne, J. The dream machine. Woman’s Journal, 1981, 164—169.


Colligan, B. Lucid dreams. OMNI, 1982, 4(6), 70—115.


Franklin, B. Sleepers signal clues to dream anatomy. Science News, 1981 (Sept. 19),

      120(12), 183.


Gackenbach, J.I. (ed.) Lucidity Letter, Quarterly newsletter for researchers and

      clinicians interested in dream lucidity (Department of Psychology,

      University of Northern Iowa Cedar Falls, IA 50614).


Galvin, R.M. Control of dreams may be possible for a resolute few. Smithsonian,

      1982, 13(5), 100—107.


Hearne, K.M.T. Insight into lucid dreams. Nursing Mirror, 1980, (March), 20—22.


Hearne, K.M.T. Control your own dreams. New Scientist, 1981, 91(1272), 783—785.


Hearne, K.M.T. Undiscovered country. Vogue, 1982 (March), 56—64.


Kenney, K. In your dream tell the monster to leave you be. Los Angeles Daily News,

            1981 (February 2), 1.


LaBerge, S.P.  Lucid dreaming: Directing the action as it happens. Psychology Today,

      1981, 15, 48—57.


LaBerge, S.P. Healing through lucid dreaming. Holmes Center Research Reporter, 1981,                                                        5, (1)2—3.


Malamud, S.P. Lucidity in walking life. Dream Network Bulletin, 1981, 5(1), 2-3.


Shute, S. (ed.) Lucidity & Beyond, Quarterly newsletter for the general population

      on lucid dreaming (Box 1406, San Francisco, CA 94101).


Strauss, S. Learning how to control dreams while dreaming is research goal. Toronto

      Globe and Mail, 1982 (June, 18), 56.


Thompson K. Mapping out the lucid dream:      An interview with Stephen LaBerge.

      Eslan Catalogue 1982, 21(3), 6—7.


Unauthored. The Dream Machine. Discover, 1981 (March), 56.


Unauthored. Wunderbare Ruhe. Der Spiegel, 1981 (March 16), 35(12), 251—253, 256.


Unauthored. The dream director. Science News, 1981, 119, 26.


Worsley, A. Apparitions and lucid dreams. New Scientist, 1980 (October 8), 118.


VII. UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS          (This includes manuscripts not referred to in any of the previous sections.)


Fellows, Peter. To awaken the dreaming self, 1982 (Centre for Inner Learning, 195

       Exbury Road, #506, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3M 1R9).


Gillespie, G. Dreamer’s progress:  A record of experiments made while dreaming,

       1982 (216 W. Second Street, Moorestown, NJ 08057).


Hearne, K.M.T. Features of Lucid Dreams:  Questionnaire data and Content Analyses,

       1982 (Box 84, Hull, England HU1 2EL).


Hearne, K.M.T. Eye—movement comunication from lucid dreams: A new technique and

       initial findings, 1982 (Box 84, Hull, England HU1 2EL).


Sparrow, S. Lucid dreaming and the out—of—body assumption, 1978 (A.R.E., Box 595,

       Virginia Beach, VA).


Wills, Russell. Endless entrance, 1981. (A summary of the Senoi literature; 1601

       Comox, Apt. 41, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, E6C 1P4.)



VIII.  MISCELLANEOUS REFERENCES (These are a few selected references about lucidity which appeared before the late 1960’s.)


Arnold—Forster, M. Studies in dreams. New York: MacMillan, 1921.


Brown, A.E. Dreams in which the dreamer knows he is asleep, Journal of Abnormal

       and Social Psychology, 1936, 31, 59—66.


Stewart, Kilton. Dream Theory in Malaya, Complex, 1951, 6, 21-33.


Van Eeden, F. A study of dreams. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research,

       1913, 26 (pt 47): 431—461.


Ders—Messmer, H. Dreaming while knowing about the dream state. Archiv fur die

       Gesamte Psychologie, 1938, 102, 291—318.


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